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A historical timeline of the relationship between psychedelics and humans
22nd June 2016

This was an attempt to make a really comprehensive timeline of psychedelic/"hallucinogenic" drugs.

It's most certainly not exhaustive.

It is supposed to focus more on the most ancient known events. In regards to more recent events, it only includes the more important stuff.

In order to give a view of the context of the times, we also added events seemingly not directly related to psychedelic drugs. These are highlighted in gray.

Note: Because this file is large, it sometimes won't completely load the first time. To check if it has completely loaded, it must end with a list of references at the bottom of the page.

Copyright © 2012-2016

If you want to reuse, please ask us for permission.

Era Event Source
13.7 Billion BC Big Bang (universe appears)
~4,600 MYA Earth’s origin Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
3,800 MYA Earliest traces of life Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
3,500 MYA Earliest evidence (fossils) of cells (prokaryotic). Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
2,200 MYA Earliest evidence (fossils) of eukaryotic cells. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
543 - 510 MYA Radiation of most modern animal phyla (the Cambrian explosion). Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
510 - 439 MYA Plants and arthropods colonize land. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
439 - 363 MYA Fishes diversify. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
363 - 290 MYA Origin of seed plants, vascular plants colonize forests, origin of reptiles, amphibians dominate. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
290 - 245 MYA Reptiles radiate, mammal-like reptiles originate,most modern insects originate, Many marine and terrestrial organisms become extinct – (Permian mass extinction). Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
245 - 206 MYA Dinosaurs radiate. Cone-bearing plants dominate landscape. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
144 - 65 MYA Cretaceous extinctions; many organisms including dinosaurs become extinct. Flowering plants appear. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
144 - 65 MYA Mammals, birds and pollinating insects radiate. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
35 - 23 MYA Primates, including apes, originate. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.487
2.5 – 1.6 MYA Genus Homo (the first real humanoid apes) appears with the species Homo habilis. Biology, Campbell & Reece, p.712
200,000 - 100,000 years ago Apes transform into Homo sapiens - according to the cited source, this takes place after the introduction of psychedelics in their diets. They first appear in Africa, from where they begin migrating and gradually spreading throughout the Earth (the “Out of Africa” hypothesis). Food of the Gods
~60,000 – 40,000 BC Pituri chewed by Australian aborigines. Custom continues today and according to the cited source, this makes it the longest continuous use of a psychoactive. Plants of the Gods, p.182
15,000 BC According to this source, the “First Drug Revolution” (as opposed to what this source calls the “New Drug Revolution” supposed to have taken place in the 60's) took place: Cannabis and its cultivation and its recreational use, originated in Asia by shamans. After this, other psychedelic drugs were also discovered in Asia, and the information about them quickly spread west and south to Europe and Africa, and up to Siberia and down through North and South America. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.158
Bones of zebu cattle together with bones of humans from 15,000 B.P. were found in Non Nak Tha (Thailand) were psilocybin mushrooms grow, suggesting ancient use (p.39). Also found in same place in graves plant material that were repeatedly burned, suggesting them as chelums for hashish smoking (151). Food of the Gods, p.39 and 151
12,000 BC In Tassili-n-Ajjer Plateau of this time there exists a society based on the religion of the Mother Goddess-cattle-mushroom trinity. Probably also the basis of the Eden myth. Drought caused by the Saharan sun caused the people's “casting out of Eden”. Food of the Gods
10,000 BC After Tassili, the tradition of the Great Goddess-cattle-mushroom trinity can next be traced in Palestine of this time with the Natufian culture. Food of the Gods
~ 9000 BC First agricultural revolution, taking place in Fertile Crescent (Western Asia). The theory of how it begun is: A wild barley (which was the first domesticated crop) called ariya was 100% contaminated with the ergot Claviceps purpurea. This caused euphoria to certain people who had taken it which begun to find no value in hunting/gathering and so developed new systems for surviving: land grubbing, which was the first form of agriculture. True Mutations, p.142 (date from Wikipedia)
9000 - 8000 BC As the radiocarbon laboratory of the Smithsonian Institution has “confirmed”, mescal bean (the seed of Sophora secundiflora) was already known and employed by Paleo-Indians by this time. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.9
9000 - 6000 BC Betel nut (Areca catechu) dating to this period has been found at spirit cave in north Thailand. Because it was found with Piper betel leaves, with which it is traditionally used, this is thought to indicate early betel nut chewing.
8440 – 8120 BC The rock-shelter site called Bonfire Shelter yielded Sophora secundiflora seeds from its lowest occupational stratum known as Bone Bed II. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.9
~8000 BC First archaeological evidence of cannabis use (according to this source). They come from Taiwan and show twisted strands of hemp being used in the making of patterns on clay pots. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
7265 ± 85 BC At Frightful Cave (Mexico), artifacts of Sophora secundiflora found dating to this time. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.9
7000 BC Catal Huyuk culture, which is where the Great Goddess-cattle-mushroom trinity can next be traced after the Natufian culture, reaches its peak. Food of the Gods
7000 BC – 1000 AD At Fate Bell Shelter in the Amistad Reservoir area of Trans-Pecos Texas (a region rich in ancient shamanistic rock paintings) the seeds of S. secundiflora and U. speciosa were found in every level of this duration. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.9
6000 BC From the steppes north of the Black Sea, the Indo-Europeans begin their first extensive colonization of nearby places moving east, west and south. On Anatolian and probably Iranian plateaus they meet Great Goddess-cattle-mushroom cultures and even though they suppress Goddess worship and replace partnership with patriarchy, they get in contact with psilocybin mushrooms and are awed by them. They call this drug Soma and write about it in the Vedas. The invasion of Catal by the Indo-Europeans in combination to a series of disastrous fires that took place around 6,500 BC forced the Mother Goddess-worshippers to leave Catal, migrating to nearby places (one of them being Crete). Food of the Gods
6000 BC Opium poppy was domesticated in the west Mediterranean region. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
5000 BC Amanita muscaria discovered and used by shamans. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.158
~4200 BC Discovery of globular grass bags from this age containing opium capsules at a multiple burial site in southern Spain highlights opium's role in indigenous ritual life. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
~ 4045 - 3960 BC At Shumla Caves in the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas peyote was preserved from excavations dating to this age. Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates
~4000 BC Linguistic evidence suggests that A. muscaria's effects were known to Siberians of this time. Pharmacotheon, p.340 and p.348
~4000 BC Textiles made of hemp from Chine dating to this age. Pharmacotheon, p.386
4000 BC Alcohol use originated in Mesopotamia and the eastern Mediterranean. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
4000-3500 BC Imprints of hemp textiles and cordage mark several fragments of pottery found in the ruins of Xi'an Banpo village in central China.
4000-3000 BC Original ideas of Christianity formed, according to John Allegro. The original ideas would only be written a few years later, around 1000 BC, and these writings formed the first composition of the Old Testament. (Christianity begun as a fertility cult that used fly agaric as sacrament). The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross (date calculated from the stuff the text says)
3500 BC Frescoes of mushroom-holding dancing shamans with cattle painted on rock surfaces of Tassili plateau. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
~3000 BC – 2500 BC According to this source, ritualistic/shamanic use of Cebíl in NW Argentina by shamans of the Wichi (Mataco Indians) dates back to this time and still continues today, making it the longest uninterrupted use of psychoactive. Plants of the Gods, p.121-122
3000 BC In China, Ephedra sinica was used as a stimulant and to improve visual acuity. It was there at birth of written language and may have influenced its development. True Mutations, p.142
Late 3000 BC A brazier containing charred hemp seeds found in a burial site in Romania from this period. Other such artefacts from the period have been found elsewhere in eastern Europe and the ritualistic use of cannabis continued to flourish into the Iron Age. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
Late 3000 BC Our first medical text is a Sumerian tablet from this time. It lists “remedies made from milk, snake-skin, tortoiseshell, salt, and saltpetre, and from plants and trees like cassia, myrtle, asafoetida, thyme, willow, pear, fir, fig, and date.” The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross
~2700 - 2800 BC Chinese tradition holds that hemp cultivation began when the emperor Shen-Nung taught the cultivation of hemp for fibre. Food of the Gods
2737 BC: Chinese Emperor describes cannabis in a medical book (first report in a medical book ever), but others believe this “Emperor” was imaginary. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.123
Shen Nung recommends Cannabis for malaria, beri-beri, constipation, rheumatic pains, absent-mindedness, female disorders. Plants of the Gods, p.95
~2700 “Clear mention of the psychotropic properties of cannabis”. Also, the reference attributed to this emperor and called “Pen Ts'ao Ching” was compiled in the first century AD. Pharmacotheon, p.386
2500 BC Soma-using Aryans enter India. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
2500 BC Alcohol use reaches the shores of the Atlantic. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
2000 BC Ephedrine first extracted from Ephedra sinica. Chinese call it Kim Iya, later Arabicized to Kimiya which then became Al-Kimiya and finally Alchemy, which according to Paracelsus gave birth to Western pharmacology. True Mutations, p.142
2000 BC Psilocybe mushrooms discovered & used by shamans. (evidently a misestimation- McKenna reports very older use). Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.158
2000 BC Eleusinian mysteries, where ergot of the species Claviceps purpurea (to make the potion called kykeon [κυκεώνας]) was believed by these authors to be the basis for the experience, were founded. The Road to Eleusis, p.2
2000 BC In the reign of emperor Shennung it was written that “hemp fruit” would result in “seeing devils”. Shennung also mentioned hemp's use in medicine. Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.70
~1500 BC Rig Vedas written, talk about a god/plant/drug called Soma used by Arians, probably a psychedelic. Eventually the cult was suppressed and the identity of the drug forgotten. According to Wasson, Allegro, and others it was Amanita muscaria. According to McKenna, it was maybe Stropharia cubensis. Some say it was ephedra (True Mutations, p.143). Date according to The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross
~1500 BC Archaeological "mushroom stones" indicate that a sophisticated mushroom cult existed in Guatemala of this time. Hallucinogens of Plant Origin
1500 BC Egyptian Eber Papyrous written (probably copied from earlier manuscripts) talking about henbane. Plants of the Gods, p.86
It also mentioned wormwood (to treat intestinal parasites and other uses) – though this is not very reliable. Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.105
~1300 BC A Chavín stone carving from a temple in northern Peru shows the principal deity holding a San Pedro cactus; almost equally ancient textiles from this region depict the cactus among jaguars and hummingbirds. Psychedelics Encyclopedia; Plants of the Gods, p.166
1200 - 800 BC Atharva Veda estimated (Wikipedia) to have been written, mention cannabis as one of the five sacred plants. The Religious and Medicinal Uses of Cannabis in China, India and Tibet
1200 - 800 BC Bhang (dried Cannabis leaves, seeds and stems) is mentioned in the verses of the Hindu Atharva Veda as "Sacred Grass", one of the five sacred plants of India. It is described as both a medicinal and ritual offering to Shiva.
~1100 BC – 400 BC Eleusinian mysteries using ergotised rye or psilocybin mushrooms. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
1000 BC Original ideas of Christianity that were formed around 4000-3000 BC, begin to be written down. These writings form the first composition of the Old Testament. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross (date calculated from the stuff the text says)
According to Wasson, the Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil in the Old Testament are one and the same (*1).
In Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality, this tree is the Siberian birch, and the "fruit" is the Fly Agaric growing in symbiosis with the birch (*1).
In Persephone's Quest, the tree is not the Siberian birch but the larch tree of Nivkhi (an indigenous ethnic group in Russia) (*2); the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil is again Amanita muscaria (*3).
*1: Pharmacotheon p.333
*2: Persephone's Quest, p.58,77
*3: Persephone's Quest, p.75
~1000 BC Mushroom stones crafted in Guatemala are believed by many to represent psychoactive mushrooms.
~1000 BC Mushroom petroglyphs of this time discovered in eastern bank of Pegtymel River (Siberia) by archaeologist N. N. Dikov. According to the sources this indicates A. muscaria use by the Chukotka people. Persephone's Quest, p.68 Pharmacotheon, p.340
1000 BC Statues dated at this time or earlier in Mexico show Psilocybae mexicana with god-like figures emerging from it, indicating religious use that was also observed in 16th century by Spaniards and still exists today. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.86
~1000 BC Oaxacan Mexican shamans begin using psilocybin mushrooms and still use it today Food of the Gods
1000 BC Peyote discovered and used by American Indian shamans. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.158, p.32
Archaeological evidence from caves in Texas shows peyote was ceremonially used by this time. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
1000-900 BC “Dionysianism”, a cult of deliriant drugs burst into Athens from somewhere in the east. Sex, Drugs & Magick
At the Dionysian mysteries, maenads dilated their eyes with belladonna and attacked male worshippers of Dionysus. Plants of the Gods, p.88
1000 – 700 BC Ceramics made sometime during these ages show the San Pedro cactus associated with deer. Psychedelics Encyclopedia; Plants of the Gods, p.166
900 BC Assyrians used Cannabis as incense. Plants of the Gods, p.94
~850 BC Homer describes magic drinks of which henbane seems to be a major ingredient. Plants of the Gods, ,p.86
8000 BC Bacopa monniera (used as brain or nerve tonic in Indian medicine) cited in Vedic text Athar-Ved Samhita. True Mutations, p.143
800 - 700 BC First evidence for persecution of European witches. Wikipedia
Witches used Henbane, Belladonna and Mandrake. Plants of the Gods, p.86
Late 8th century BC Homer composes Odyssey describing magic drinks with effects indicative of Henbane. Plants of the Gods, p.86
~800 BC In the Temple of Apollo at Delphi (Greek city) a priestess (called “Pythia”) delivers messages from god Apollo as prophecies, possibly while intoxicated with smoke from Henbane seeds. Plants of the Gods, p.86
(though recent discoveries suggest the intoxicant were fumes from the ground, containing methane, ethane and ethylene). Science Illustrated 2/2005 (Greek magazine)
700 BC Scythians (nomadic central Asian barbarian group) entered eastern Europe introducing cannabis use probably for the first time. Described by Herodotus. Food of the Gods, p.152
700 – 500 BC Inscriptions from Chou dynasty describe Cannabis (“Ma”) as stupefying. Plants of the Gods, p.94
600 BC Zend-Avesta (sacred texts of Zoroastrianism) mention an intoxicating resin, probably hashish Plants of the Gods, p.94
600 BC Indian surgeon Sushruta states that cannabis cures leprosy. Plants of the Gods, p.95
Sushruta advocates use of wine + cannabis for anaesthesia in his book Sushruta Samhita. Susruta of ancient India (VK Raju)
600 BC Assyrians called the spur-like growth of Ergot a “noxious pustule in the ear of the grain”. Plants of the Gods, p.102
575 BC Zoroastrianism established. Zoroastrians use a drug that's most probably same as Soma, but call it Haoma. Being more aware of the connection of cattle to the mushroom and the Great Goddess, they object to the sacrifice of bulls involved in the Indo-European rites of Soma use. Food of the Gods
500 BC Cannabis recreationally used in India, a myth says it was given to mankind by Shiva, others say it is Shiva himself. From those times, Indian doctors prescribe cannabis for many medical conditions, and Shivites use it religiously. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.160
500 BC In Germany hemp seeds have been found dating to this time. Plants of the Gods, p.95
500 BC A Taoist priest wrote that Cannabis was used by “necromancers, in combination with Ginseng, to set forward time and reveal future events”. Plants of the Gods, p.94
~500 BC Herodotus wrote about Scythian horsemen inhaling the smoke from burning hemp seeds. Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.70; Pharmacotheon, p.386
500 – 300 BC Scythian tombs from this era in central Asia found smoking tools with remains of Cannabis. Scythians might be the first to use Cannabis and responsible for spreading use to the west. Plants of the Gods, p.95
500 - 300 BC

“Mushroom stones” found in highland Guatemala of this period.

Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
300 BC The earliest European reports of peyote say that the Chicimecos and Toltecs of Mexico were acquainted with it as early as 300 BC, though the date may even be earlier. Antiquity of the Use of New World Hallucinogens
483 BC Buddha ate his Last Meal, which according to Wasson was Soma, in other words Fly Agaric. Persephone's Quest, p.139 (date is in p.117)
460-370 BC Democritus lived, and described visionary use of cannabis. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.159; Plants of the Gods, p.95
400 BC Cult mysteries that originate from Crete (from about 1100 BC according to Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide) are now widespread in Greece. Mainly these are the Eleusinian and the Dionysian mysteries. In these rites, Great Goddess is worshipped and psilocybin mushroom is used. Also used (Food of the Gods, p.90) are thorn apple (datura), deadly nightshade, and monkshood. Suppressed in AD 268 by the arrival of Christianity and male dominance. Food of the Gods; Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
400 - 200 BC A ceramic snuff pipe from this period - in the shape of a deer holding a peyote button between its teeth - is found at Monte Albán in Oaxaca, Mexico.
350 BC The sacred books of Parsees possibly refer to Ergot when they talk about noxious grasses that cause miscarriage and death to pregnant women. Plants of the Gods, p.102
300 BC Theophrastus described people performing kinds of rituals before collecting mandrakes from the ground. Plants of the Gods, p.90
~300 BC First careful cataloguing of plants; written by Theophrastus it was called Enquiry into Plants. It “lists some 400 species with their forms, habits, habitats, fructification, and cultivation, and their uses.” The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross
240 BC According to Sahagún's Florentine Codex peyote was used by the Aztecs since at least as early as this time. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
200 BC Miniature mushroom stones found in archaeological sites near Guatemala dating to this age (see also 1500 BC about other such findings in same area). Plants of the Gods, p.161
120 BC Roman writer Lucilius mentions use of hemp. Plants of the Gods, p.95
100 BC to AD 100 First botanically recognizable representation of peyote, found in archaeological tomb art dating to this period. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.10
100 BC to 300 - 400 AD A mushroom cult flourished in northwestern Mexico: in Colima, Jalisco, and Nayarit. Plants of the Gods, p.162
100 BC to 200 - 300 AD Ceramic bowls from Colima (Mexico) with four peyote like ornaments and a male hunchbacked figure holding a pair of peyote plants suggest incipient or temporary domestication of the cactus in prehistoric times. Antiquity of the Use of New World Hallucinogens
100 BC – 500 AD Large ceramic urnes from these times found in southern coast of Peru and depict San Pedro cactus. Plants of the Gods, p.166
1st century AD Dioscorides writes about medical and rope-making use of cannabis, but not about its psychoactivity. Food of the Gods, p.156
Josephus Flavius writes about some supernatural properties of mandrake. Plants of the Gods, p.90
Pliny the Elder talks about hemp fibres. Plants of the Gods, p.95
66 AD Roman authorities attack the original Christian cult, which was actually a fly agaric cult. Until 73 AD, the cult was thoroughly destroyed. The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross
50 – 70 AD Dioscorides writes De Materia Medica. and
77 AD Pliny the Elder completes his book Natural History.
23-79 AD Roman natural historian Pliny describes visionary use of what is probably cannabis. Food of the Gods, p.156
100 AD A 7.5 cm high miniature statue of an Amanita muscaria dated to to this time found in Nayarit, Mexico.
140 - 180 AD Hemp rope found in a Roman site in UK. Plants of the Gods, p.95
200 AD Greek physician Galen reports widespread use of hemp. Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.70 Plants of the Gods, p.95
220 AD Physician Hoa-tho used and recommended hemp with wine for anaesthesia. Food of the Gods, p.153; Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.159
268 AD Greek cults are for the greatest part finally suppressed by Christianity and male dominance. Food of the Gods
300 AD Frescoes with mushroom designs found in central Mexico of this era, indicative of a mushroom cult. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
387 AD St Augustine condemns Manechaeans for mushroom use. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
400 AD Eleusinian mysteries, where ergot of the species Claviceps purpurea was believed by these authors to be the basis for the experience, was suspended. The Road to Eleusis p.2
400 – 1100 BC Tremendous increment of Hemp cultivation in England. Plants of the Gods, p.95
500 AD A mural from Teotihuacán, Mexico, depicts a Mother Goddes with her priests and a vine of Ololiuqui. Plants of the Gods, p.172
950 AD Use and abuse of hashish is widespread. Food of the Gods, p.156
960 AD – 1644 AD Several species of datura introduced into China from India. Plants of the Gods, p.107
10th century By this time, cannabis is well known to Arabs. Sex, Drugs & Magick
~1000 AD European contact in China caused shamanism to decline and with it the psychoactive use of Cannabis. Though Chinese continued using it as fibre. Plants of the Gods, p.94
1070 – 1280 AD Peyote preserved from excavations at shelter CM-79 near Cuatro Cie´negas in Coahuila, Mexico dating to this age. Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates
1072 AD Fresco from this age showing Psilocybe mushroom and mandrake-shaped Eden trees. “Adam and Eve with serpent-entwined Psilocybe mushroom (caduceus). Italy [Abbey of Montecassino]; circa 1072 - British Library”.
~1080 AD Hasan I Sabbah forms his Ismailian sect (Hashishins), that allegedly uses hashish- as reported by Marco Polo around 1290. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.117 and Food of the Gods, p.158
11th century AD Arabian doctor Avicenna reported a species under the name Jouzmathal (“metel nut”), a report repeated in Dioscorides' writings. This species is “undoubtedly” Datura metel. Plants of the Gods,p.107
Early 12th century AD Traveller to Siberia reports use of fly agaric among Koryak (Siberian tribe). Plants of the Gods, p.83
1200 AD A ceramic pot from Chimú culture dated to this time depicts a herbalist/shaman holding Huachuma (San Pedro). Plants of the Gods. p.168
1291 AD Fresco from Plaincourault Abbey in Indre, France depicts Adam and Eve standing beside a Tree of Knowledge which bears a striking resemblance to Amanita muscaria.
13th century AD Bishop Albertus the Great reported that Henbane was employed by necromancers to invoke demons. Plants of the Gods, p.87
Late 13th century AD Marco Polo travels and reports use of hashish by Persian warlord Hasan I Sabbah's sect. Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.73
1496 AD A Spanish report mentions that the Taino of Hispaniola (island of West Indies) inhaled a powder called Cohoba to communicate with the spirit world. This was identified in 1916 to be the same as the snuff taken in Orinoco (river basin in South America) and called Yopo and derived from the beans of Anadenanthera peregina. Plants of the Gods, p.116
14th - 18th century The Christian suppression of the old animistic pagan religion culminates with extermination of the witches by the Inquisition. Germanic Mythology and the Fate of Europe
1502 AD Psilocybin mushrooms used recreationally at Moctezuma II coronation feast. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
1509 - 1547 AD Henry VIII who was king of England from 1509 until his death in 1547, promoted cultivation of hemp in England. Plants of the Gods, p.95
1539 First European mention of Sophora secundiflora – by Cabeza de Vaca, who reported that the Indians of Texas traded its seeds. Hallucinogens and Culture, p.9
1545 AD Hemp introduced into Spanish colonies in Chile (S. America) Plants of the Gods, p.95
1547 - 1569 AD Fray Beradino de Sahugun wrote Historia de las Cosas ed Nueva Espana (aka Florentine Codex) which talks about “nanacatl”, a different name of Teonanácatl. He says that those who eat these mushrooms “see visions, feel a faintness of heart and are provoked to lust”. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
Bernardino de Sahagún writes in his Florentine Codex about the use of peyote by the Aztecs estimating its use from at least as early as 240 BC. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
1554 AD Hemp introduced into Spanish colonies in Peru (S. America). Plants of the Gods, p.95
1560 AD A missionary in Colombian Llanos writes that the Indians along the Rio Guaviare take Yopa (A. peregrina) and tobacco. Plants of the Gods, p.116
1570 - 1575 AD Franciso Hernández carries out investigations in Mexico and records the preparation and use of ololiuqui by Aztecs (published in his report Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus in 1615). Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.55
1578 AD Reported that datura was used as aphrodisiac in the East Indies. Plants of the Gods, p.109
1580 AD First mention of use of Cebíl (Anadenanthera colubrina) in southern Andean region, by Spanish chronicler Cristobal de Albornoz. Plants of the Gods, p.120
1582 AD Earliest medical report of the obstetric values of Ergot published by Lonicer of Frankfurt, stating that it alleviates pregnancy pains. Plants of the Gods, p.104
1589 AD A report says that in Tunja (Colombia), among the Muisca tribe, a chief was burried with his women and slaves and gold and leaves of the Borrachero, or what this source claims to be Brugmansia aurea and Brugmansia sanguinea. Plants of the Gods, p.140
1591 AD “Oldest published account on Peyote use”- Juan Cardenas talked about Peyote use in Indies (lands of South and Southeast Asia). Plants of the Gods, p.145
1591 AD About this time, Spaniards discover peyote use among Aztecs in New World, and associate it with Aztecs' bloody sacrificial rites. The Holy Office of the Inquisition enact the first drug laws in the New World. In 1620, peyote was formally denounced because it was for "purposes of detecting thefts, of divining other happenings and foretelling future events." In a Catholic text of 1760 AD, peyote was equated with cannibalism. Psychedelics Encyclopedia; Plants of the Gods, p.147
1595 AD Swiss botanist Buhin describes Ergot. Plants of the Gods, p.104
1596 AD Herbalist Li Shi-chen reports medicinal uses of Man-t'o-lo (Datura) and seems to have experimented with it and knows of its psychotropic effects (though viewing them in a supernatural way). Plants of the Gods, p.107
1599 AD A chronicler writes that in Colombia they chew Hayo (Coca) and Jopa (Yopa, i.e. A. peregrina) and Tobacco. Plants of the Gods, p.117
Early 16th century AD The famous statue of Xochipilli, Aztec Prince of Flowers, discovered on slopes of volcano Mt. Popocatepetl. Glyphs on it depict many psychotropics: mushroom cap, tendril of Morning Glory, flower of Tobacco, flower of Morning Glory, bud of Sinicuiche, caps of Psilocybe aztecorum. Plants of the Gods, p.161 (p.63 for plant identities)
~1600 AD Bharaprakasha (actually “Bhava Prakasha Samhita”, considered as classic works for the Ayurveda, an Indian system of medicine) describes many medical uses of cannabis. Plants of the Gods, p.95
16th century AD Teonanácatl, peyotl and ololiuqui mentioned by the Spanish chroniclers to have been used in Mexico. Teonanácatl and Ololiuqui, two ancient magic drugs of Mexico
16th century AD German physician Johannus Weier mentions use of hashish by witches. Food of the Gods, p.160
16th century AD Aztec statue from this period of Xochipilli was unearthed on the side of a volcano near Tlalmanalco. It has carvings of psychoactive flowers including mushrooms (Psilocybe aztecorum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), morning glory (Turbina corymbosa), sinicuichi (Heimia salicifolia), possibly cacahuaxochitl (Quararibea funebris), and one unidentified flower.
16th century AD A Spanish missionary in Mexico writes about Ololiuqui, its effects, and its use by natives. Plants of the Gods, p.170
1606 AD Hemp cultivation began in British colonies in Canada. Plants of the Gods, p.95
1611 AD Hemp cultivation began in British colonies in Virginia. Plants of the Gods, p.95
1620 AD Inquisitors of the Spanish conquerors of New World formally denounce Peyote because it was used for "purposes of detecting thefts, of divining other happenings and foretelling future events." (see also 1591 AD). Psychedelics Encyclopedia
1620, 1678, 1690 "...words expressing awareness and self-awareness first emerge in the English and German languages during the seventeenth century. In English "conscious" as meaning "inwardly sensible or aware" appears first in 1620, "consciousness or "the state of being conscious" in 1678, and "self-consciousness" or "consciousness of one's own thoughts, etc." in 1690 .... It is interesting that "con-scious" whose Latin source had meant "to know with" (to share knowledge with another), now came to mean "to know in oneself, alone." (underline added). Lancelot Law Whyte quoted in Perception-Hallucination Continuum (Fischer)
1632 AD Hemp cultivation began in British colonies in New England (USA). Plants of the Gods, p.95
1651 AD Dr Francisco Hernández reports three types of mushrooms which were worshipped by Mexican natives. He reported that their ingestion caused uncontrolled laughter, visions, etc. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.73
1651 AD Dr Francisco Hernández identifies Ololiuqui as a Morning Glory, describes it and talks about its medical uses and its value as an aphrodisiac and its ceremonial use by priests. Plants of the Gods, p.170
1656 AD A guide for missionaries argues against Indian idolatries, including mushroom ingestion, and recommends their extirpation. Plants of the Gods, p.156
1658 AD First illustration of Ergot, drawn by Swiss botanist Bauhin's son. Plants of the Gods, p.104
1676 AD French botanist Dodart adds a lot of scientific knowledge regarding how to control ergotism plaques. Plants of the Gods, p.104
1696, 1698, 1706 AD Inquisition files from these years are found in the National Archives in Mexico City that mention a drug called Pipiltzintzin and hint its psychoactive effects. Some believe this is Salvia divinorum. Plants of the Gods, p.165
17th century AD Several Spanish Jesuit (e.g. Padre Andréa Pérez de Ribas) testify that Mexican Indians used Peyote medicinally and ceremonially. Plants of the Gods, p.145
17th century AD Recipes for witches' ointments from this age include diverse human and faunal ingredients and a number of psychoactive substances of plant origin: alcohol, opium, cannabis, thorn apple, sweet flag (Acorus calamus) and, most commonly, the solanaceous plants deadly nightshade, black henbane and mandrake. The archaic use of hallucinogens in Europe: an archaeology of altered states
1730 AD Swedish military officer, prisoner of war in Siberia for 12 years, reports tribes and shamanic use of fly agaric. The Koryak (Siberian tribe) also drink their intoxicated urine as the psychoactive ingredients of the mushroom pass the body unmetabolised. This was their only intoxicant they used, until Russians introduced alcohol. Plants of the Gods, p.82
1760 AD In a Catholic text of Inquisition of Spanish conquerors of New World, peyote was equated with cannibalism (see also 1591 AD). Psychedelics Encyclopedia
Late 17th century First account of a Peyote ritual, recorded by a Spanish missionary in Nayarit. It revolved around the Cora tribe. Plants of the Gods, p.146
Late 17th – Early 18th century AD Yurimagua Indians of Peruvian Amazon reported to be drinking a beverage made from mushrooms, probably Psilocybe yungensis. Plants of the Gods, p.162
~1800 AD Napoleon tries to suppress use of cannabis in Egypt, but fails because Greek smugglers import it. Food of the Gods, p.158
1800 – 1900 AD Romanticism flourishes, use of hash and opium. Food of the Gods
1819 AD An Englishman writing about Gabon mentions “Eroga” (iboga) and describes it as “favourite but violent medicine”. Plants of the Gods, p.114
1837 AD The term hallucination (from the Latin alucinari "to wander in mind") gets introduced to the psychiatric literature by Esquirol. Hallucinations and illusions
of non-psychiatric aetiologies
1842 AD English physician W. B. O’ Shaughnessy first to introduced ganja (Indian hemp) to England in his Bengal Pharmacopeia. Food of the Gods, p.159
~1844 - 1849 AD Club des Hachischins is active. They use several psychoactives but most notably hashish. Other drugs included wine and opium. Members included Baudelaire. A classic book about this is Les paradis artificiels. Wikipedia; Food of the Gods, p.159; Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.74
1845 AD French psychiatrist J.J. Moreau publishes Hashish and Mental Illness (Du Hachisch et de l'aliénation mentale). Food of the Gods, p.160; Murder, Magic and Medicine, p.74
1848 AD Students carry banners demanding free availability of hash and ether. Food of the Gods, p.159
1851 AD Richard Spruce travels to Amazon, meets Indian shamans ingesting a plant, names it Banisteria caapi. Food of the Gods
Richard Spruce, researching among Tukanoan tribes in Rio Vaup'es of Brazil, met with Caapi and sent some to UK for chemical study. Plants of the Gods, p.132
1854 AD First exploratory journey of cannabis effects by American traveller Bayard Taylor, published in Atlantic Monthly. Food of the Gods, p.160
1855 AD Fitz Hugh Ludlow, American explorer, reports self-experimentation on hashish in scientific style. Food of the Gods, p.163
1855 AD Ernst Freiherr von Bibra publishes Die narkotischen Genussmittel und der Mensch, in which he describes several psychoactive plants. Plants of the Gods, p.196
1855 - early 1930s AD Cannabis use in USA neither yet popularised nor stigmatised. This until crusades of US Commissioner of Narcotics Harry J. Anslinger creates public hysteria calling it “weed of death”. This appears to be due to American chemical and petrochemical companies trying to eliminate hemp as a competitor in areas of lubricants, food, plastics, fibre. Food of the Gods, p.165
1859 AD Porta (a contemporary of Galileo) wrote about the psychoactive effects of solanaceous plants. Plants of the Gods, p.89
1860 AD Ernst Freiherr von Bibra publishes his only popular and non-technical work, The Seven Sisters of Sleep, in which he describes several psychoactive plants. Plants of the Gods, p.196
1864 AD A report insists that Iboga is not toxic except in high doses and that it can be used as a stimulant. Plants of the Gods, p.114
1867 AD Iboga gets promoted to the public at the Paris Exposition. Following this, tonics based on the whole plant extract became extremely popular in France and Belgium. Food of the Gods
1887 AD Lewis Lewin's returns to Berlin from a tour of the United States, carrying with him a quantity of peyote buttons, that he had obtained from the Parke-Davis Company during his stay in Detroit. He set to work extracting, characterizing, and self- experimenting with the new compounds he discovered. Food of the Gods
1888 Kalamba Moukenge conquets Congo and defeats most tribes. To unite all of these tribes together he decides to make up “one God” to hold all of them together; the God he chooses is the cannabis plant. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.160
1892 AD Explorer Carl Lumhotz describes ceremonial Peyote use among the Indians of Sierra Adre Occidental, primarily Huichol and Tarahumara. Plants of the Gods, p.147 (date from
1895 AD John Uri Lloyd publishes his fictional novel Etidorpha which show that he and his mycologist brother Curtis Gates Lloyd are aware of psychedelic mushrooms other than Amanita muscaria. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
1897 Arthur Heffter, a rival of Lewin's, became the first human being to isolate and ingest pure mescaline Food of the Gods
1898 Reported that Iboga's root is stimulating Plants of the Gods, p.114
1898-1910 Heroin promoted by doctors as a cure for morphine addiction. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.261
1901 Ibogaine (psychoactive ingredient of iboga) isolated from iboga Food of the Gods
1902 Anthropologist Carl Lumholts observes that some Indians in NW Mexico were using peyote in religious rites, and cannabis whenever peyote was unavailable Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.161
1903 Earliest reports about iboga's “hallucinogenic” effects Plants of the Gods, p.114
1906 Stropharia cubensis described by Earle in a Cuban agronomy journal. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
1910-1920 Maria juana (Mary Jane) celebrated in a famous marching song of Pancho Villa's rebels during Mexican Revolution: La cucaracha, la cucaracha, Ya no puede caminar, Porque no tiene, porque no tiene, Marijuana que fumar Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.161
1911 Carl Hartwich publishes his work Die menschlichen Genussmittel, talks about several psychoactive plants. Plants of the Gods, p.196
1914 A.E. Merrill publishes a paper in Science describing the psychedelic effects of Panaeolus papilionaceus. The identification seems incorrect, the effects look like those of psilocybin mushrooms. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
1915-1916 William E. Safford attempts to identify the Teonanácatl of the Aztecs. He claims that it is actually dried peyote buttons, and that sacred mushrooms never existed. For the next three decades his theory was accepted in the scientific community. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
Plants of the Gods, p.157
1918 The Native American Church is formed.
1919 Dr Blas P. Reko who carried out extensive anthropological and botanical work in Mexico for over 25 years, publishes an article stating that neonacatl (Teonanácatl) is a hallucinogenic mushroom. His reports are discounted. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
1919 Ethnobotanist Blas Pablo Reko writes that Mixtec and Mazatecan shamans today use a psychedelic mushroom, not peyote. Food of the Gods
1922 AD Native American Church numbers 13,300 members. Plants of the Gods, p.152
1924 Louis Lewin publishes Phantastica a very important book for psychopharmacology. Phantastica, p.ix
1927 Chemists E. Perrot and M. Raymond-Hamet isolate the active agent from Banisteriopsis caapi and name it telepathine due to accounts about it inducing telepathy in Amazonian tribes. Food of the Gods
1929 Lewin published his work reflecting his new fascination with caapi; entitled Banisteria caapi. In 1957 it was discovered to be the same as the previously called harmaline, so the name harmaline stayed. Food of the Gods
1930s A cult that flourished in Chicago in these times uses cannabis and just meditates. All members were musicians, white or black. Members had holy names from Hinduism. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.162
1931 Writings of Washington published. They document that George Washington was one of the first people to import marijuana to America from Eurasia and that he was using it, probably recreationally. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.157
1936 Roberto J. Weitlaner obtained some Teonanácatl in Oaxaca. He was the first white man in modern times to have done so. He sent the specimens to Blas P. Reko, who sent them to Harvard, where they arrived in a decomposed state and thus escaped identification. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.74
1937 Reko sends Henry Wassen, an anthropologist and ethnographer, a package containing collections of two plants that he had found particularly interesting. One of the samples was seeds of Ipomoea violacea, which contain LSA; the other sample was a fragment of Teonanácatl, the first specimen of a psilocybin-containing mushroom to be brought to scientific attention Food of the Gods
1938 Roberto J. Weitlaner's daughter, Irmgard, along with anthropologist Jean Basset Johnson and two others attended a mushroom rite in Huatla, Oaxaca. They were the first whites to attend a mushroom ceremony. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1938 Harvard botanist Richard E. Schultes travelled to Oaxaca and obtained from native informants two specimens of two different genera: Panaeolus campanulatus var. sphinctrinus, and Stropharia cubensis. In his field notes, he also described a third specimen: Psilocybe caerulescens var. mazatecorum. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1938 Albert Hofmann, working in/for Sandoz laboratories, synthesises LSD-25 (25th substance in the series of LSD derivatives that he produced). In his own words: “I had planned the synthesis of this compound with the intention of obtaining a circulatory and respiratory stimulant (an analeptic)”. Colleagues show no special interest in it so testing is discontinued. See 1943 for continuation. LSD My Problem Child
1938, 1939 Botanical association of Virola with Epená snuff made. Plants of the Gods, p.176
1940 Disney releases Fantasia.
1943 See 1938. Albert Hofmann, driven by “the feeling that this substance could possess properties other than those established in the first investigations”, reproduces LSD-25 for which tests discontinued in 1938. He unintentionally ingests the drug somehow (probably by skin absorption through his fingers) and experiences its effects. A few days after he self-administers it, and his lifelong occupation with it begins. LSD My Problem Child
1948-1950 Earliest psychiatric experimentations of LSD, at Boston Psychopathic Hospital (now the Massachusetts Mental Health Center). First reports about LSD published. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62
1951 Pentagon is told about LSD. First CIA experiments begin. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x
1952-53 R. Gordon Wasson and his wife Valentina become aware of the existence of a mushroom cult in central Mexico. They set out to prove their theory that religion originates from the use of hallucinogenic plants. They travel to Mexico guided by Roberto J. Weitlaner to Oaxaca. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1953 First clinic using LSD in psycholytic therapy established at Powick Hospital (England). Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62
1953 Pentagon gets LSD from Sandoz. CIA begins its army projects with LSD. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x
1953 William Burroughs visits the Amazon in search of yage, finally finds and tries it. Yage Letters
1953 Humphrey Osmond administers mescaline to Aldous Huxley. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62
1953, 1955, 1956 Stephen Szára begins research on the molecular basis of mental illness. Inspired by Huxley's book, in 1955 he tries mescaline. In the same year he asks Sandoz for LSD but gets rejected. He finds out of a snuff powder called Cohoba used by native Indians. It contained bufotenin and DMT; the known psychoactive ingredient was bufotenin, but it wasn't sure whether DMT was psychoactive. He decided to test it himself, and synthesised it. He tested it on 30 volunteers; in 1956 he published his results. DMT at Fifty
1954 First detailed description and specific identification of Virola gets published as well as its preparation and use among Colombian Indians. Plants of the Gods, p.176
1954 Aldous Huxley's The Doors of Perception published (in it he discusses his experience with mescaline).
1955 R. Gordon Wasson and Allan Richardson first two Americans to attend a mushroom ritual and ingest the mushrooms. They do so under the supervision of Maria Sabina. The ritual and the mushrooms become popularised by Wassons' reports and book Mushrooms, Russia and History. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1956 Stanislav Grof's first LSD session. LSD Psychotherapy, p.13
1956 R. Gordon Wasson invites French mycologist Roger Heim to Oaxaca to research the use of sacred mushrooms. Heim identifies 14 species and several subspecies belonging to three genera, Psilocybe, Stropharia, and Conocybe. Many of these were new to mycology. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1957 Mycologist Dr. Rolf Singer and two young Mexican botanists, M.A. Palacios and Gastón Guzmán, arrive at Oaxaca to do taxonomic work on the psilocybin mushrooms. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75
1957 Life magazine publishes a story on Psilocybe mexicana written by R. Gordon and Valentina Wasson. According to Brotherhood of Eternal Love, this was one of first major “boosts” of popularisation of psychedelics in America. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62 Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.24
1957 Osmond coins the word "psychedelic"; before this they were more commonly referred to as psychotomimetics or hallucinogens. Psychedelics, p.9
1958 Dr. Albert Hofmann isolates and determines the structure of two active agents and names them psilocybin and psilocin after the genus Psilocybe. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75; Food of the Gods
1958 The anaesthetic effect of phencyclidine (PCP) observed in animals. PCP becomes available by Parke Davis and Co. under the name Sernyl (CI-395) for clinical investigation in man. Illicit Synthesis of Phencyclidine (PCP) and Several of Its Analogs
1958 Alan Watts takes LSD for the first time (100 µg) when asked by a psychiatric research group to see if the drug would reproduce a mystical experience. The New Alchemy (Alan Watts)
1959 Ken Kesey takes LSD, peyote, phencyclidine, and other drugs as an experimental volunteer at Menlo Park Veteran's Hospital in California. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62
1959 Dr. Albert Hofmann isolates lysergic acid amides (LSA) from ololiuqui seeds. Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered, p.62
1959, 1962 Ken Kesey, 25 years old, supplements his grants for studying creative writing by taking part as a subject for drug experiments at Menlo Park Veterans' Hospital. Drugs include LSD and peyote. Here he gets inspired for the writing of One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest which he published in 1962. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.41 (date from Wikipedia)
1960 Dr. Leary eats magic mushrooms in Cuernavaca, Mexico. During the same year he tries synthetic psilocybin and also obtains some from Sandoz in order to make his experiment on prisoners in Concord State Prison, Massachusetts. Dr Richard Albert assists him. “I was first drugged out of my mind in Cuernavaca, August 1960. I ate seven of the Sacred Mushrooms of Mexico and discovered that beauty, revelation, sensuality, the cellular history of the past, God, the Devil all lie inside my body, outside my mind.” Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.75-76 High Priest, p.13
1960 Aldous Huxley ingests 10 mg of psilocybin in a group under Tim Leary's supervision. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1960 April: Alexander Shulgin tries mescaline sulfate (400 mg of it) for the first time, with a friend as a sitter, and the experience “unquestionably confirmed the entire direction of [his] life”. PIHKAL, p.16
1961 Robert Anton Wilson took peyote with a Sioux Indian friend and “experienced the explosion (or implosion) of my previous universe and the creation of a new universe”. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.32
1960s Anthropologists and a Mexican writer permitted by Huichols to participate in a Peyote pilgrimage (sacred trips to gather Hikuri, aka Peyote). Plants of the Gods, p.148
1960s Hippie movement probably originating from USA before spreading around the world. Psychedelic rock becomes widespread and so does the promotion of egalitarianism, the sexual revolution, and the use of psychedelic drugs. Wikipedia
1960-1963 During this period more than 200 psychedelic drug sessions were guided by the Harvard Psychedelic Research Project. High Priest, p.xxv
Early 60s John C. Lilly first tries LSD. The Centre of the Cyclone, p.7
1961 Tim Leary tries LSD, given to him by Michael Hollingshead. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x
1962,63 1962: Tim Leary and Albert conduct experiments with LSD and other psychotropics and psychedelics in Harvard: the 400 subjects include writers, artists, priests, and students. Harvard becomes anxious and say Leary's and Albert's contracts will not be renewed when they expire in 1963. Leary, Albert, and other followers rent a hotel in Mexico to conduct their own experiments on themselves. They return to Harvard to work and they also create a “colony”- a “multi-family” center in a house near Boston based on Huxley's Island.

1963: They launch IFIF. Leary and Albert launch a second colony in Mexico. Leary and Albert get fired from Harvard because of “giving drugs to students”.
Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.30-33,142-143 (photos) Politics of Ecstasy, p.15
1962 In an expedition organised by R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann visits Maria Sabina with a bottle of psilocybin pills synthesised by Sandoz (under brand name Indocybin). Maria tried them and was satisfied, and glad that she could now have the effects even when mushrooms were not available. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
1962 Sandoz restricts LSD sales. Underground chemists start producing LSD. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x
1963- 1966 Laws against the sale, manufacture, and possession of LSD, mescaline and psilocybin are passed by legislatures in USA. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76, Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.35
1963-1966 Timothy Leary and friends form the Castalia Fundation. Politics of Ecstasy, p.15
1964 Timothy Leary and friends rent a very big house in Millbrook for a cheap price from a rich young guy. Form a colony. Ken Kesey buys a bus for $1500 and with a group of Californians called Acid Merry Pranksters set of to travel in America. They name the bus “FURTHER”. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x, p.34-40
1965 In August, Ken Kesey invited Hell's Angels to La Honda. They were a motorbike gang based in Oakland known for “their violence, their machismo and outlaw attitudes”. They meet the Merry Pranksters at La Honda and party for two days in peace even though they usually fight with people. The Hell's Angels tried LSD and liked it. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.42
1965 Ken Kesey comes up with the “Acid Test” project to popularise LSD. In autumn, the Acid Tests begin. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.42
1966-1967 John Lilly writes Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer (which started circulating in 1967 but got revised and published in 1972). Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer
1966 Leary and friends form The League for Spiritual Discovery. Politics of Ecstasy, p.15
1966 G. Gordon Liddy raids Millbrook colony that Leary and Albert founded. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.xi, 142-143 (photos)
1967 First report published regarding “chromosomal damage caused by LSD”: Chromosomal damage in human leukocytes induced by lysergic acid diethylamide, by Cohen, M., et al. Chromosomal damage in human leukocytes induced by lysergic acid diethylamide
1967 Terence McKenna, then still in college, gets involved with shamanism after being lead there by studying Tibetan religions. During this year, which was what he characterised as his "opium and kabbala phase", he also travelled to Jerusalem. True Hallucinations; Hight Times interview of Terence McKenna, April 1992
1967 Stephen Szára studies N.N-diethyltryptamine (DET) for treatment of chronic alcoholic patients. DMT at Fifty, p.203
1967 According to this source, the “news” about chromosomal damage “caused by LSD” caused many experimenters to want to replace LSD with “organic” drugs like psilocybin and mescaline. This caused the prices of these drugs to rise, and dealers to try to fake such drugs with other ones. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1968 After circulation of Lilly's Programming and Metaprogramming in The Human Biocomputer (1967), a Government agency withdraws funding of his dolphin research (where he works for the National Institute of Mental Health). Lilly hears many negative stories regarding how LSD harmed his mind and brain. He leaves the Institute and goes to the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center to resume his LSD research. Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer
1968 Carlos Castaneda publishes The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge. Wikipedia
1968 R. Gordon Wasson publishes Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. Wikipedia
1968 Tim Leary publishes High Priest. First edition of The Politics of Ecstasy released. High Priest; The Politics of Ecstasy p.9
1968 Leary's work giving psilocybin to prisoners, published as The Effects of Consciousness-Expanding Drugs on Prisoner Rehabilitation in the Psychedelic Review (#10). The Effects of Consciousness-Expanding Drugs on Prisoner Rehabilitation
1969 Robert Fischer published his first (I think) work on psilocybin's effects on visual perception. Article is called “Effects of the Psychodysleptic Drug Psilocybin on Visual Perception. Changes in Brightness Preference”. Effects of the Psychodysleptic Drug Psilocybin on Visual Perception. Changes in Brightness Preference
1969 The Caapi material that Richard Spruce sent to UK from Brazil for examination (see 1851 AD) finally gets chemically analysed. Plants of the Gods, p.132
1970 A cult of American G.I.s in Vitenam, use a shotgun to inhale weed. Squad leader ejected shells from gun, inserted weed and blew the smoke in mens' mouth. Sex, Drugs & Magick, p.163
1970 A key to the North American Psilocybin Mushroom” published by Leonard Eros in California, instructing laypersons when and how to obtain psilocybian mushrooms in nature. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1970 Mescaline and peyote scheduled as part of a Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act which establishes penalties for possession, manufacture, or distribution. Psychedelics Encyclopedia
1971 Due to popular demand for organic drugs, dealers begin lacing commercial mushrooms with LSD and sell them as psilocybian mushrooms. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1971 22nd Feb: Terence McKenna first tries psilocybin mushrooms, in La Chorrera, a little more than 24 hours after their arrival there. They arrived in Amazon on the 7th of same month, originally in search of oo-koo-he. True Hallucinations
1971 Carlos Castaneda publishes A Separate Reality: Further Conversations with Don Juan. Wikipedia
1972 Lilly publishes both Programming and Metaprogramming in The Human Biocomputer and The Center of the Cyclone. Programming and Metaprogramming in The Human Biocomputer
1972 Several members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love arrested. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.x, p.142-143 (photos)
1973 Nick Sand's (one of earliest bootleg LSD chemists) St. Louis laboratory found by police; arrested. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.142-143 (photos)
1975 Ron Stark (international LSD enterpreneur and Brotherhood of Eternal Love, partner) arrested in Italy. Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p.vii, p.xi, p.142-143 (photos)
1975 First living cultures of Stropharia cubensis seen in underground market. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1975 Terence and Dennis McKenna write The Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, under the pseudonyms Oss and Oeric, and suggest the extraterrestrial origin of Stropharia cubensis. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.76
1982 The psychoactive ingredient of Salvia divinorum first gets described by this name, by Ortega et al. Plants of the Gods, p.165
1982 Life Extension, A Practical Scientific Approach becomes an international best-seller, and demands raise in "health food" and vitamin stores for compounds such as vitamins C and E and amino acid supplements. Reinventing Foods: The New Alchemy
1984 Bengali Hindus announce that Soma was Stropharia cubensis. Magic Mushroom Grower's Guide, p.77
1984 Valdes et al describe the psychoactive ingredient of Salvia divinorum as divinorin A (Divinorin A is later found to be identical to Ortega's salvinorin, so it gets re-named as salvinorin A). Plants of the Gods, p.165
1986 R. Gordon Wasson's book Persephone's Quest, published. In it he supposes that the earliest religion in the world is the Soma cult.
When human first encountered it, "at that point Religion was born, Religion pure and simple, free of Theology, free of Dogmatics, expressing itself in awe and reverence and in lowered voices, mostly at night, when people would gather together to consume the Sacred Element."
Persephone's Quest, p.78
1990s Psychedelic trance music becomes popular worldwide. Wikipedia
1991 PIHKAL first published. PIHKAL
1992 Plants of the Gods, first published. Wikipedia
1992 Food of the Gods, first published. Wikipedia
1992 On a tour in UK (that would be recorded in Revelations) Bill Hicks states his belief that certain drugs were meant to grow naturally upon our planet to help speed up and facilitate our evolution. Talking about magic mushrooms he says: “Do you think magic mushrooms growing on the top of cows' shit was an accident? Where do you think the phrase 'that's good shit' came from? Why do you think Hindus think cows are holy? 'Holy shit...' Why do I think McDonald's is the Antichrist? That[the mushroom]'s God's little accelerator pad for our evolution.” He then does a representation of how he believes humans evolved from apes: being "probably too stupid to catch a cow", our ancestor apes ate a mushroom that was growing in cow's dung, then started laughing and (implying they were enlightened) said "I think we can go to the moon..." Revelations video, date from
1993 AD Native American Church numbers at least 300,000 members. Plants of the Gods, p.152
1994 (October 27) The DEA raid Alexander Shulgin's laboratory. They take away his license for working with Schedule I drugs. Shulgin is also fined $25,000 which is eventually paid by public donations.
1995 AD Use of Peyote by members of Native American Church made legal by Bill Clinton. Plants of the Gods, p.155
1997 TIHKAL first published.


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